Torsion is the twisting of an organ, or part of an organ, along its own length.
Uterine torsion is rare and is defined as a rotation of >45 around the long axis of the uterus and usually occurs at the level of the uterine isthmus. Torsion of a pedunculated subserosal or submucosal fibroid can also occur.
Adnexal torsion of the ovary or tube and ovary, most commonly occurs secondary to an underlying benign ovarian lesion. Whilst adhesions in malignancy and endometriosis have been previously reported to reduce the risk of torsion, we report cases of borderline/malignanct ovarian tumours which have undergone torsion, as well as cases with co-existent endometriosis.
Rarer causes of torsion include isolated ovarian torsion and isolated fallopian tube torsion.
In the paediatric population, in which ovarian torsion usually presents acutely, management is performed with the goal of preserving ovarian tissue.